From Bride To Button hole Stitch
BRIDE BOUCLE. See Bride Picotee.
BRIDES ORNEES. Bars or brides ornamented with loops or purls.
BRIDE FiCOTEE. Much used in Argentan lace, a six-sided buttonhole bar fringed with a little row of three four purls. BRISE-BIES. A lace curtain that covers the lower w dow-sash only.
BRODE, FILET. French reproduction of Point Cot popularly called filet; old Italian work darned net. BRODERIE DE MALINES. All light bobbin laces of Meet order were called malines, and imitations of such laces m; by embroidering were called Broderie de Malines.
BRODERIE DE NANCY. Drawn-work, embroidered f quently in colored silk.
BRUGES. Old Flanders, now a city of Belgium. In Sixteenth Century one of the best examples of bobbin lace was called guipure de Bruges. Guipure de Bruges, or Point Duchesse, is a bobbin lace of fine quality ; the sprigs resemble those of Honiton lace, and are united by brides or bars ornees. A large quantity of Valenciennes lace is also made at Bruges, but the quality is not as good as that produced elsewhere, for in forming the ground, the bobbins are only twisted twice, while those, for example, at Ypres and Alost are twisted four and five times. The oftener the bobbins are twisted the clearer the effect of the mesh ground.Bruges pillow lace has the reputation of washing thick. The lace-making at Bruges is now mostly in the hands of religious communities. Duchesse is the most popular type. The Guipure of Honiton resembles it and the Venetian Mosaic, but the English lace is not worked with such fine thread, nor are the Devonshire leaves and sprays of such good and bold design, weak design being the chief defect of the modern Honiton lace.
BRUGGEN. See Bruges.
BRUSSELS. City of Belgium, formerly of old Brabant, adjoining Flanders, one of the southern provinces of old Netherlands. Both needle-point and bobbin laces were made here, the former called point gaze, the latter point plat. Brussels lace-makers used a fine flax thread. The earliest needle-point patterns followed the Italian methods but soon the lace-makers adopted the technique of the French and the term to-day applies strictly to a net lace. The cordonnet edging the pattern in needlepoint Brussels is not covered with buttonholing, but is tacked down flat. Sometimes Brussels lace shows bobbin and needlepoint combined. It is this type that was known as Point d'Angleterre, which see. To-day much of the Brussels lace is made in separate pieces, the flowers and other details being assembled. Machine-made net was promptly adopted in Old Brussels Needle-Point. Brussels work; the designs were made separately and appliqued on the net. Brussels lace has the defect of dis-coloration. The flax for the manufacture of old Brussels lace was grown in Brabant and the term Brabancon was often used. BRUSSELS. Saxony Brussels, Swiss Brussels. In the curtain trade effects that are beautiful at a little distance are produced in what is known as Saxony Brussels and Swiss Saxony or double-net Brussels curtain. Swiss Brussels curtain. Brussels, the net ground for both being made by machinery in Nottingham. In Saxony Brussels the design is hand worked on a tambour drum. In Swiss, made chiefly at St. Gall, the embroidering in chain stitch is done by machine. In the Saxony Brussels patterns a fine mesh effect is produced by overlaying one net mesh upon another. Parts of the upper mesh are then cut away, leaving the pattern apparently of a finer character. These double-net effects are rather difficult, the trimming close to the applique requiring skill. Novelty meshes are introduced into the pattern of both the Saxony Brussels and the Swiss Brussels by run work or darning by hand. The main distinction between the Saxony and the Swiss is that the Swiss Brussels is single net throughout and utilizes machinery in the tambour work, while the Saxony has double net in the pattern and the stitching is done by Old Burano, in imitation of Brussels. hand. The Swiss Brussels curtain imitates the double-net effect by a machine overstitching. The illustrations here show the technique; the curtains when hung have a beautiful effect.
BRUXELLES. See Brussels. Bruxelles
BRYONY. Tulip design. Buckinghamshire Lace. The bobbin lace of Buckinghamshire is celebrated for its fine, clear grounds, which rival those of Lille, the twisted plaits used for such grounds being generally of the same model, though occasionally made according to the Valenciennes method. All Buckinghamshire lace is worked in one piece on the pillow, reseau and toile being formed by means of the bobbin. Queen Catherine of Aragon did much in introducing and encouraging the lace-making industry in Buckinghamshire, as she did that of the neighbouring counties of Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire. It flourished exceedingly, until in 1623 a petition was addressed to the High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire from Great Marlow, showing the distress of the cottagers from " the bone lace-making being much decayed." In 1626 Sir Henry Borlase founded and endowed the Free School of Great Marlow, for twenty-four boys to read, write, and cast accounts, and for twenty-four girls " to knit, spin, and make bone lace," and, in consequence, the trade of that place flourished again, even French authors speaking of the town with its "manufactures de dentelles aufuseau," which, however, they say are "inferieure a celle de Flandres." In the seventeenth century lace-making flourished in Buckinghamshire. Later, a petition from the poet Cowper to Lord Dartmouth in favour of the lace-makers declared that " hundreds in this little town (Olney) are upon the point of starving, and that the most unremitting"industry is barely sufficient to keep them from it." Probably some change in fashion had caused this distress. There were lace schools at Hanslope, and children taught there could maintain themselves, without further assistance, at eleven or twelve years of age. It is interesting to note that boys were taught the handicraft as well as the girls, and many men when grown up followed no other employment, which seems to us an economic mistake, as there are so many trades suitable for men, so few for women as home workers. The lace made at Hanslope in the eighteenth century was valued at from sixpence to two guineas a yard, and the lace trade was most important, 800 out of a population of 1275 being engaged in it. Newport Pagnell, from its central position, was of great commercial importance with regard to the bone lace manufacture. In the Magna Britannia, 1720, it is spoken of as "a sort of staple for bone lace, of which more is thought to be made here Bobbin-Made Buckinghamshire Laces ;
BUCKLE STEM STITCH. Term used in Honiton lace. Beginners' stem, buckle stem and stem stitch.
BULLION. A lace made of gold and silver threads. The earliest laces were made of gold threads. A specimen was discovered on the opening of a Scandinavian barrow near Wareham in Dorsetshire. Bullion lace is still much used in the East for ornamenting robes of state, and in Italy and France for elaborate priests' vestments and saints' robes. In the time of Queen Anne, Bullion lace was lavishly used for decorating the livery of menservants ; and in its braid form still serves this purpose, and that of ornamenting the uniforms of officers in the army and navy. Officers' epaulettes are of Bullion lace or braid, really of gold wire ; the thick kind is called Bullion; the thinner frisure; the flat kind or braid is termed clinquant; and all kinds are classed under the name cannetille..
BUNT LACE. In 1752 women from France taught the Scotch peasants how to make bobbin laces and they were called bunt lace.
BURANO. In the Island of Burano a considerable quantity of Venetian point lace was manufactured during the eighteenth century. The ground was the reseau, not the bride variety, so that, in this particular, the lace resembled Alencon and Brussels. The thread used was extremely fine and delicate. Until 1845 the art of lace-making lingered on in the nunneries, but little was made elsewhere. During recent years a revival has taken place, and the Burano lace of the present day is in no way inferior to the old fabric, while laces identical with the finest Venetian, Rose Point, Point de Gaze, Alencon, and Argentan are produced, which rival in beauty such laces made in the best years of their native manufacture. In 1874 M. Seguin wrote, "There still exist some women who make needlepoint lace at Burano, a small island not far from Venice, where in past times the most famous laces were produced." The revival of the Burano lace industry, which took place at the same time as that of Venice, Pelestrina, and Chioggia, is one of the most interesting pages of modern lace history, and should inspire those who are desirous of helping the industrial classes of their own country to commercial prosperity. In 1872 the hard winter reduced the fishing population of Burano to semi-starvation. Relief was given temporarily and a fund was created, headed by Queen Margherita of Italy and the Pope, for resuscitating the lace industry. One old woman, Cencia Scarpariola, had worked at the old Burano point and could remember the stitches, but could not teach them. Madame Anna Bellorio d'Este, he present mistress of the Burano school, watched the worker, practised herself, then taught eight pupils. Ladies interested in the work came forward with the necessary funds ; and the excellence of the lace produced assured constant orders. The artist Signor Paulo Fambri, together with the Princesse Giovanelli and Comtesse Marcello, were on the board of direction, and during the first year prizes were gained for the excellence of the work. At the present moment 600 workers are constantly employed either at the Royal Lace School, which has its headquarters in the Municipal Buildings, or at their own homes, after receiving not less than two years' instruction at the school. There is a school of design in connection with the factory, and excellent results have been obtained from the slight artistic training which is necessary for the worker in the higher branches. The prosperity of the island has increased enormously, the marriage rate has doubled in twenty years, and many a young worker is able to save out of her earnings the "30 or "40 which will purchase a little cottage to serve as her dot. Only the choicest and most beautiful kinds of lace are made at Burano at the present day; they include Point de Venise, Tagliato a fogliami, Point de Venise a la rose, Point d'Argentan, Point d'Alencon, Point de Bruxelles, and Point d'Angleterre.
BURNT-OUT LACE. Term applying to lace made by embroidery methods, the embroidery being of one material, the background being of another material. This background susceptible of destruction by acid bath leaving thus a lace, the material of the embroidery being unaffected.
BUTTONHOLE STITCH. Used in needle-point lace, as distinguished from the darning technique in bobbin work.