From Maceio Lace To Madeira lace
MACEIO. Bobbin lace of coarse texture and fiber design made, with cotton thread, by natives of Brazil. Maceio, in the province of Alogoa, is the center of the industry.
MACHINE NET. Made as early as 1560 and dates its origin from the invention of the stocking frame by William Lee, a Nottingham weaver who experienced much difficulty in producing his machine, the English authorities opposing its construction as inimical to the interests of the working people. Lee died poor in France in 1610; his brother, James Lee, eventually introduced the machine. In 1760 lace was produced in such quantities in England that many efforts were made to adapt this stocking frame to its manufacture. From 1760 to 1770 Crane, Else and Harvey, Hammond, John Lindley, Holmes, Robert Frost, Morris, were all prominent in their efforts to accomplish this end. The warp machine devised by the Englishman Crane in 1775 was one of the most important steps. It was taken up by France, Spain, Italy and Germany. Even Louis XVI in 1774 adapted the Else and Harvey machine and fine French applique laces were mounted on this crude knitted netting. In 1778-1791 the French made their own machines. From that date down to 1810 when the English Heathcoat machine was obtainable, the lists of all the lace machines that were invented in France indicated extraordinary interest in the subject. A tariff was even placed upon English laces of this character in order that the French machine-made article should be properly developed. But all these early nets were produced on adaptations of the stocking frame and the mesh was of a character that unraveled. For fifty years inventors struggled to build a machine that would make a fast mesh, but it was not until 1808 that Heathcoat succeeded, and by 1810 his net had become so successful that in Nottingham alone 1800 people were employed at needle-running and tambouring on this net. . The first machine produced narrow strips only. They had to be joined together. The first factory operating twisted mesh or fast mesh machines was built in 1810 in Loughborough and soon machines were in operation producing laces in eighteen, thirty, thirty-six and fifty-four-inch widths. .. The invention of machine net came at a time when the art of hand-made net was almost extinct. Queen Adelaide put the stamp of approval upon machine net by ordering a dress of Honiton (bobbin) sprigs on machine net. The wedding dress of Queen Victoria was of Honiton applique on machine net. Those of the Princess, Royal, Princess Alice and the Princess of Wales were all of Honiton, mounted on machine net. Royal approval soon gave to applique work great prosperity. With the introduction of machine net the entire traditions of lace-making were upset and by 1830 lace-makers of Macrame cushion. all kinds produced simple motifs or parts which they applied to the net, destroying thus the consistency of their work and demolishing types.
MACRAME. PUNTO A GROPPO. (It.) Often cailed by the Spanish Fleco Morisco. Macrame is one of the oldest types of lace, being one of the two kinds of knotted work; macrame and tatting. The term knotted does not apply to the knot or tie of the needle-point or crochet, but to the distinct knot made with the fingers, a positive knot. It must be obvious that the only way this knot can be made is where the operator has the ends of the thread in hand and as a result when the work is finished these end threads are frequently allowed to hang loose, fringe like; when they are cut close the macrame characteristic is not apparent and one is often thus confused in knotted lace. Though frequently found in the work of the Eastern nations, the intricate knotted lace of Italy may be said to date from the Fifteenth Century. We find references to knotted laces in the very earliest Italian records. It was adopted for the ornamentation of church vestments and, for a long time, for dress purposes, especially for the poorer people, particularly for the trimming of underwear. During this period of its use the ends were tied close and there was no fringe or loose ends. When pillow lace became popular, during the latter part of the Sixteenth Century, through the new methods introduced by Barbara Uttmann, that kind of lace was most commonly made, and knotted lace, more difficult to produce and usually heavier, went out for dress purposes. Under the name "macrame," it was applied mainly to household purposes, namely, the trimming of furniture, beds, household linens, and the fringe ends for this purpose became an added feature.
MADAGASCAR. A lace of little value, bobbin character.
MADEIRA LACES. Madeira bobbin industry imitates European examples. The islands are chiefly famous for their embroideries